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Gemstone Properties:   Achroite   Actinolite   Alexandrite   Almandine   Amber   Amethyst   Ametrine   Andradite   Andalusite   Apache Tear   Apatite   Aquamarine   Axinite   Barite   Benitoite   Beryl   Bixbite   Bytownite   Calcite   Cassiterite   Cerussite   Chrysoberyl   Citrine   Clinozoisite   Cordierite    Corundum   Cubic Zirconia   Danburite   Demantoid   Diamond   Diopside   Dravite   Ekanite   Elbaite   Emerald   Epidote   Euclase   Feldspar   Fluorite   GGG   Garnet   Goshenite   Gypsum   Hauynite   Heliodor   Hiddenite   Indicolite   Idocrase   Iolite   Kornerupine   Kunzite   Kyanite   Labradorite   Moldavite   Morganite   Obsidian   Opal   Orthoclase   Padparadschah   Peridot   Petalite   Piemontite   Phenacite   Prasiolite   Quartz   Rhodochrosite   Rhodolite   Rubellite   Ruby   Sapphire   Scapolite   Scheelite   Selenite   Sinhalite   Sphalerite   Sphene   Spinel   Spodumene   Schorl   Spessartite   Sunstone   Tanzanite   Topaz   Topazolite   Tourmaline   Tektite   Tsavorite   Verdelite   Vesuvianite   Wulfenite   YAG   Zincite   Zircon   Zoisite  
Beryl (beryllium aluminum silicate)

Types/Color:

  • Aquamarine – light blue to blue-green

  • Bixbite – Red to strawberry-red

  • Emerald – Green

  • Goshenite – colorless

  • Heliodor – deep yellow

  • Morganite – Pink to peach

  • Other beryls may be referred to by their color, such as green beryl and yellow beryl.


Beryl: variety aquamarine (heat-treated)


Beryl: variety aquamarine (natural, not heat treated)


Green Beryl

Beryl variety emerald (untreated)


Yellow-Green Beryl

Beryl variety Heliodor

Moh’s hardness: 7.5-8

Refractive index: 1.57-1.6

Critical angle: 39.5°

Specific gravity: 2.65-2.75

Cleavage: None

Fracture: Conchoidal, tough

Dispersion: Medium (.014)

Heat sensitivity: None

Pleochroism: Dichroic – Golden: weak (yellow to light-yellow); Goshenite: colorless, no dichroism; Green: distinct (yellow-green to blue-green); Heliodor: weak (gold-yellow to greenish-yellow); Morganite: distinct (pale-pink to lavender-pink); Purple: distinct (purple to colorless); Yellow: (light yellow to medium yellow).

Birefringence (double refraction): Weak (.006-.009)

Crystal structure: Hexagonal

Treatments: Aquamarine is usually heat treated to remove the greenish cast.  Morganite may be heat treated to change the peachy coloring to pink and may also be irradiated.  Bixbite and heliodor may be heat treated and irradiated.  Goshenite may be heat treated.  Emerald is almost always treated with some filling agent to reduce the visibility of inclusions.  These treatments are controversial and there is no consensus as to which treatment, if any, is appropriate.

Cutting: Emerald and bixbite with heavy inclusions can break apart.  Otherwise, beryl is probably the easiest stone to facet.

Polishing: Beryl polishes easily with alumina or cerium oxide.

Gemstone Properties:   Achroite   Actinolite   Alexandrite   Almandine   Amber   Amethyst   Ametrine   Andradite   Andalusite   Apache Tear   Apatite   Aquamarine   Axinite   Barite   Benitoite   Beryl   Bixbite   Bytownite   Calcite   Cassiterite   Cerussite   Chrysoberyl   Citrine   Clinozoisite   Cordierite    Corundum   Cubic Zirconia   Danburite   Demantoid   Diamond   Diopside   Dravite   Ekanite   Elbaite   Emerald   Epidote   Euclase   Feldspar   Fluorite   GGG   Garnet   Goshenite   Gypsum   Hauynite   Heliodor   Hiddenite   Indicolite   Idocrase   Iolite   Kornerupine   Kunzite   Kyanite   Labradorite   Moldavite   Morganite   Obsidian   Opal   Orthoclase   Padparadschah   Peridot   Petalite   Piemontite   Phenacite   Prasiolite   Quartz   Rhodochrosite   Rhodolite   Rubellite   Ruby   Sapphire   Scapolite   Scheelite   Selenite   Sinhalite   Sphalerite   Sphene   Spinel   Spodumene   Schorl   Spessartite   Sunstone   Tanzanite   Topaz   Topazolite   Tourmaline   Tektite   Tsavorite   Verdelite   Vesuvianite   Wulfenite   YAG   Zincite   Zircon   Zoisite  
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